June begins with Jupiter sailing away from Mars, moving ever higher and westward above the predawn eastern horizon.
About 75 minutes before sunrise, Venus will be quite low in the east. To the upper right of the brilliant planet will be Mars, and to its upper right will be bright Jupiter. West of Jupiter, you’ll see Saturn well up in the southeast.
With a clear sky, an unobstructed view of the eastern horizon, and binoculars, you may spot Mercury in the sun’s foreglow, to Venus’ lower left, between about June 17 and 25. Once Mercury is up, all five planets visible to the naked eye will be strung out in an arc from left to right in the order Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn—the same order as their distances from the sun.
However, the sun will probably begin to wash out Saturn and Mars before Mercury appears. So be sure to look for Saturn and Mars by 75 minutes before sunrise, then try to spot Mercury about a half-hour later.
On the night of 13-14, June delivers a large and gorgeously bright “supermoon.” It gets its beauty by reaching fullness at 6:51 am on June 14—less than 12 hours before perigee, its closest approach to Earth in a lunar cycle. Unfortunately, on that morning the moon sets before reaching fullness. To catch it, check your local time of moonset and look to the southwest 20 minutes beforehand. Or, just watch the moon rise against a sunlit sky on the evening of June 13.
Summer arrives officially with the solstice at 4:13 am on June 21, when the sun reaches a point over the Tropic of Cancer. At that moment Earth will be lighted from the Antarctic Circle up to the North Pole and beyond to the Arctic Circle on the dark side of the planet.
June 7—First Quarter Moon
The Moon is one-quarter of its way through its orbit around the Earth, which makes half the Moon illuminated and half dark from our perspective. This is the best time of the month to see the Moon’s surface features like craters and mountains through binoculars or a telescope.
June 14—Full Moon
The Moon is located on the opposite side of the Earth as the Sun and the side we see is fully illuminated.
June 21—Third Quarter Moon
This phase occurs when the Moon is three-quarters of the way through its orbit around the Earth.
June 29—New Moon
The Moon is located on the same side of the Earth as the Sun and is not visible in the night sky. This is the best time of the month to observe faint objects like galaxies and star clusters because there is no moonlight to interfere.