Checklist of Common Grasses

Checklist of the Grasses of Minnesota

Adapted from Cholewa, A.F., 2002, Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Minnesota,
Synonyms are not meant to be exhaustive but include the most recent references.

[Achnatherum hymenoides see Oryzopsis hymenoides]
[Agrohordeum macounii see Elymus x macounii]
Agropyron cristatum -- introduced (Eurasia)
[Agropyron pectiniforme see A. cristatum]
[Agropyron repens see Elytrigia repens]
[Agropyron smithii see Elytrigia smithii]
[Agropyron trachycaulon see Elymus trachycaulus]
[Agrostis geminata see A. hyemalis var. scabra]
Agrostis gigantea -- introduced (Europe)
Agrostis hyemalis -- according to Kartesz & Kartesz 1980 and subsequently Gleason & Cronquist, this includes A. geminata, which is on the state Special Concern list

var. hyemalis
var. scabra

Agrostis perennans
[Agrostis scabra see A. hyemalis var. scabra]
Agrostis stolonifera -- introduced (Europe)

var. palustris
var. stolonifera

[Agrostis stolonifera var. major see A. gigantea]
Alopecurus aequalis
Alopecurus carolinianus
Alopecurus pratensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Ammophila breviligulata -- state Threatened list, known only from the Duluth area
Andropogon gerardii
Andropogon hallii
-- introduced (central and southern U.S.)
Aristida basiramea
Aristida dichotoma
var. curtissii
Aristida longespica var. geniculata -- introduced (central and southern Great Plains occasionally found elsewhere); known only from Anoka Co.
Aristida oligantha
Aristida purpurea
var. longiseta
Aristida tuberculosa -- state Special Concern list
Arrhenatherum elatius var. elatius -- introduced (Europe)
Avena fatua -- introduced (Europe); occasionally persisting near cultivated fields and highly disturbed places
Beckmannia syzigachne
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua gracilis
Bouteloua hirsuta
Brachyelytrum erectum

var. erectum
var. glabratum

[Brachyelytrum septentrionale see B. erectum var. glabratum]
Bromus altissimus
Bromus ciliatus
Bromus inermis
-- introduced (Europe)
[Bromus inermis ssp. pumpellianus see B. pumpellianus]
Bromus japonicus -- introduced (eastern hemisphere)
Bromus kalmii
[Bromus latiglumis see B. altissimus]
Bromus pubescens
Bromus pumpellianus
-- introduced (western U.S. and Canada); known only from Houston Co.
Bromus secalinus -- introduced (Europe)
Bromus tectorum -- introduced (Eurasia)
Buchloe dactyloides -- state Special Concern list
Calamagrostis canadensis
[Calamagrostis inexpansa see C. stricta]
Calamagrostis lacustris -- state Special Concern list
Calamagrostis montanensis -- state Special Concern list
[Calamagrostis neglecta see C. stricta]
Calamagrostis purpurascens -- state Special Concern list; known only from Cook Co.
Calamagrostis stricta
[Calamagrostis stricta var. lacustris see C. lacustris]
Calamovilfa longifolia var. longifolia
Cenchrus longispinus -- state DOA noxious weed
[Cenchrus pauciflorus see C. longispinus]
Cinna arundinacea
Cinna latifolia
Dactylis glomerata
-- introduced (Europe)
Danthonia spicata
Deschampsia cespitosa
-- state Special Concern list
Deschampsia flexuosa
Diarrhena americana
-- state Special Concern list; known only from Fillmore Co.
[Diarrhena obovata see D. americana]
[Dichanthelium acuminatum see Panicum lanuginosum var. fasciculatum]
[Dichanthelium boreale see Panicum boreale]
[Dichanthelium depauperatum see Panicum depauperatum]
[Dichanthelium dichotomum see Panicum dichotomum]
[Dichanthelium lanuginosum see Panicum lanuginosum]
[Dichanthelium latifolium see Panicum latifolium]
[Dichanthelium leibergii see Panicum leibergii]
[Dichanthelium leucothrix see Panicum leucothrix]
[Dichanthelium linearifolium see Panicum linearifolium]
[Dichanthelium meridionale see Panicum leucothrix var. meridionale]
[Dichanthelium oligosanthes see Panicum oligosanthes]
[Dichanthelium ovale see Panicum commonsianum]
[Dichanthelium sabulorum see Panicum columbianum]
[Dichanthelium villosissimum see Panicum villosissimum]
[Dichanthelium wilcoxianum see Panicum wilcoxianum]
[Dichanthelium xanthophysum see Panicum xanthophysum]
[Digitaria cognata see Leptoloma cognatum]
Digitaria ischaemum -- introduced (Eurasia)
Digitaria sanguinalis -- introduced (Europe)
[Diplachne fascicularis see Leptochloa fascicularis]
Distichlis spicata var. stricta
[Distichlis stricta see D. spicata]
Echinochloa crusgalli -- introduced (Europe)

var. crusgalli
var. frumentacea

Echinochloa muricata

var. microstachya
var. muricata

Echinochloa walteri
Eleusine indica
-- introduced (Eurasia); occasional weed near cultivated fields
[Elyhordeum x macounii see Elymus x macounii]
Elymus canadensis
[Elymus canadensis var. wiegandii see E. wiegandii]
Elymus diversiglumis
Elymus hystrix
[Elymus interruptus see E. diversiglumis]
Elymus junceus -- introduced (Asia); known only from Dakota Co.
Elymus racemosus -- known only from Houston Co.
Elymus trachycaulus
Elymus villosus
Elymus virginicus
Elymus wiegandii
Elymus x macounii
Elytrigia repens
-- state DOA noxious weed
Elytrigia smithii
Eragrostis cilianensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Eragrostis frankii
Eragrostis hypnoides
Eragrostis minor
-- introduced (Europe)
Eragrostis pectinacea
Eragrostis pilosa
var. perplexa -- introduced (tropical regions)
Eragrostis spectabilis
Eragrostis trichodes
-- introduced (central and southern U.S.)
Eriochloa villosa -- introduced (Asia); state DOA noxious weed
[Festuca arundinacea see F. elatior]
Festuca brachyphylla var. rydbergii
Festuca elatior -- native to Europe
[Festuca longifolia see F. trachyphylla]
[Festuca obtusa see F. subverticillata]
Festuca ovina -- introduced (Europe)
[Festuca ovina var. saximontana see F. brachyphylla]
Festuca paradoxa -- reported for Minn. but no specimens at the Museum
Festuca pratensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Festuca rubra

[Festuca saximontana see F. brachyphylla]
Festuca subverticillata
Festuca trachyphylla
-- introduced (Europe); known only from Dakota Co.
Glyceria borealis
Glyceria canadensis
Glyceria grandis
Glyceria striata

var. striata
var. stricta

Helictotrichon hookeri -- state Special Concern list
[Hesperostipa comata see Stipa comata]
[Hesperostipa spartea see Stipa spartea]
Hierochloe odorata
Hordeum jubatum
Hordeum pusillum

[Koeleria macrantha see K. pyramidata]
Koeleria pyramidata
Leersia lenticularis
-- state Special Concern list
Leersia oryzoides var. oryzoides
Leersia virginica
Leptochloa fascicularis
var. acuminata
Leptoloma cognatum
Leymus cinereus
-- reported for Minn. but no specimens at the Museum
[Leymus racemosus see Elymus racemosus]
[Lolium arundinaceum see Festuca elatior]
[Lolium pratense see Festuca pratense]
Lolium perenne -- introduced (Europe)

var. aristatum
var. perenne

Lolium temulentum -- introduced (Mediterranean region); known only from the Mankato area
Melica nitens -- state Threatened list
Milium effusum
Miscanthus sacchariflorus
-- introduced (eastern Asia)
Muhlenbergia asperifolia
Muhlenbergia cuspidata
Muhlenbergia frondosa
-- state DOA noxious weed
Muhlenbergia glomerata
Muhlenbergia mexicana
Muhlenbergia racemosa
Muhlenbergia richardsonis
Muhlenbergia schreberi
Muhlenbergia sylvatica
Muhlenbergia uniflora
-- state Special Concern list
[Nassella viridula see Stipa viridula]
Oryzopsis asperifolia
Oryzopsis hymenoides
-- state Endangered list
Oryzopsis pungens
Oryzopsis racemosa
Panicum boreale
Panicum capillare
Panicum columbianum
Panicum commonsianum
var. euchlamydeum
Panicum depauperatum
Panicum dichotomiflorum
-- state DOA noxious weed
Panicum dichotomum -- known only from Hennepin Co.
Panicum lanuginosum

var. fasiculatum
var. implicatum
var. lindheimeri
[var. praecocius see P. villossisimum]
var. tennesseense

Panicum latifolium
Panicum leibergii
Panicum leucothrix
Panicum linearifolium

[Panicum meridionale see P. leucothrix]
Panicum miliaceum -- introduced (Eurasia); state DOA noxious weed
Panicum oligosanthes
Panicum perlongum
Panicum philadelphicum
Panicum villosissimum
Panicum virgatum
Panicum wilcoxianum
Panicum xanthophysum

[Pascopyrum smithii see Elytrigia smithii]
[Paspalum ciliatifolium see P. setaceum]
Paspalum setaceum var. ciliatifolium
[Pennisetum glaucum see Setaria glauca]
Phalaris arundinacea -- disagreement as to whether this is native or alien
Phalaris canariensis -- introduced (Europe)
Phleum pratense -- introduced (Europe)
Phragmites australis
[Piptatherum pungens see Oryzopsis pungens]
[Piptatherum racemosum see Oryzopsis racemosus]
Poa alsodes
Poa annua
-- introduced (Eurasia)
Poa arida
Poa bulbosa
-- introduced (Europe)
Poa chaixii -- introduced (northern Europe); known only from the Duluth area
Poa compressa -- introduced (Europe)
Poa glauca
Poa interior
Poa languida
-- possibly a synonym of P. saltuensis
Poa nemoralis -- introduced (Europe); known only from St. Louis Co.
[Poa nemoralis ssp. interior see P. interior]
Poa paludigena -- state Threatened list
Poa palustris
Poa pratensis
-- both native and introduced forms exist
Poa saltuensis
[Poa scopulorum see P. glauca]
Poa sylvestris
Poa trivialis -- introduced (Europe)
Poa wolfii -- state Special Concern list
Poa x tormentuosa -- known only from Cook Co.
Polypogon monspeliensis -- introduced (Europe); known only from Polk Co.
[Psathyrostachys juncea see Elymus junceus]
Puccinellia distans -- introduced (Europe)
Puccinellia nuttalliana
Puccinellia pallida
-- state Special Concern list
Schedonnardus paniculatus
Schizachne purpurascens

var. pubescens
var. purpurascens

Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium
Scolochloa festucacea
Setaria faberi
-- introduced (eastern Asia); state DOA noxious weed
Setaria glauca -- introduced (Europe)
Setaria italica -- introduced (Europe)
[Setaria lutescens see S. glauca]
Setaria verticillata var. verticillata -- introduced (Eurasia)
Setaria viridis -- cosmopolitan weed
Sorghastrum nutans
Spartina gracilis
Spartina pectinata

[Sphenopholis intermedia see S. obtusata var. major]
Sphenopholis obtusata

var. major
var. obtusata

Sporobolus asper var. asper
[Sporobolus compositus see S. asper]
Sporobolus cryptandrus

var. cryptandrus
var. fuscicolor

Sporobolus heterolepis
Sporobolus neglectus
Sporobolus vaginiflorus
Stipa comata
Stipa spartea
Stipa viridula

[Torreyochloa pallida see Puccinellia pallida]
Triplasis purpurea -- state Special Concern list
Trisetum spicatum
Vulpia octoflora var. glauca

[Zizania aquatica see Z. palustris]
Zizania palustris

var. interior
var. palustris

Common cultivated grasses of Minnesota:

Avena sativa -- oats
Hordeum vulgare -- barley
Poa pratense -- Kentucky bluegrass
Secale cereale -- rye
Sorghum sudanense -- sorghum
Triticum aestivum -- wheat
Zea mays -- corn
Zizania palustris -- wild-rice

Return to Guide to the Common Grasses of Minnesota

Anita F. Cholewa, Ph.D., J.F. Bell Museum of Natural History
Copyright 2002 / All rights reserved / No portion of this guide may be copied without written permission.