Checklist of Common Grasses

Checklist of the Grasses of Minnesota

Adapted from Cholewa, A.F., 2002, Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Minnesota, http://z.umn.edu/mnflora.
Synonyms are not meant to be exhaustive but include the most recent references.

[Achnatherum hymenoides see Oryzopsis hymenoides]
[Agrohordeum macounii see Elymus x macounii]
Agropyron cristatum -- introduced (Eurasia)
[Agropyron pectiniforme see A. cristatum]
[Agropyron repens see Elytrigia repens]
[Agropyron smithii see Elytrigia smithii]
[Agropyron trachycaulon see Elymus trachycaulus]
[Agrostis geminata see A. hyemalis var. scabra]
Agrostis gigantea -- introduced (Europe)
Agrostis hyemalis -- according to Kartesz & Kartesz 1980 and subsequently Gleason & Cronquist, this includes A. geminata, which is on the state Special Concern list

var. hyemalis
var. scabra

Agrostis perennans
[Agrostis scabra see A. hyemalis var. scabra]
Agrostis stolonifera -- introduced (Europe)

var. palustris
var. stolonifera

[Agrostis stolonifera var. major see A. gigantea]
Alopecurus aequalis
Alopecurus carolinianus
Alopecurus pratensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Ammophila breviligulata -- state Threatened list, known only from the Duluth area
Andropogon gerardii
Andropogon hallii
-- introduced (central and southern U.S.)
Aristida basiramea
Aristida dichotoma
var. curtissii
Aristida longespica var. geniculata -- introduced (central and southern Great Plains occasionally found elsewhere); known only from Anoka Co.
Aristida oligantha
Aristida purpurea
var. longiseta
Aristida tuberculosa -- state Special Concern list
Arrhenatherum elatius var. elatius -- introduced (Europe)
Avena fatua -- introduced (Europe); occasionally persisting near cultivated fields and highly disturbed places
Beckmannia syzigachne
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua gracilis
Bouteloua hirsuta
Brachyelytrum erectum

var. erectum
var. glabratum

[Brachyelytrum septentrionale see B. erectum var. glabratum]
Bromus altissimus
Bromus ciliatus
Bromus inermis
-- introduced (Europe)
[Bromus inermis ssp. pumpellianus see B. pumpellianus]
Bromus japonicus -- introduced (eastern hemisphere)
Bromus kalmii
[Bromus latiglumis see B. altissimus]
Bromus pubescens
Bromus pumpellianus
-- introduced (western U.S. and Canada); known only from Houston Co.
Bromus secalinus -- introduced (Europe)
Bromus tectorum -- introduced (Eurasia)
Buchloe dactyloides -- state Special Concern list
Calamagrostis canadensis
[Calamagrostis inexpansa see C. stricta]
Calamagrostis lacustris -- state Special Concern list
Calamagrostis montanensis -- state Special Concern list
[Calamagrostis neglecta see C. stricta]
Calamagrostis purpurascens -- state Special Concern list; known only from Cook Co.
Calamagrostis stricta
[Calamagrostis stricta var. lacustris see C. lacustris]
Calamovilfa longifolia var. longifolia
Cenchrus longispinus -- state DOA noxious weed
[Cenchrus pauciflorus see C. longispinus]
Cinna arundinacea
Cinna latifolia
Dactylis glomerata
-- introduced (Europe)
Danthonia spicata
Deschampsia cespitosa
-- state Special Concern list
Deschampsia flexuosa
Diarrhena americana
-- state Special Concern list; known only from Fillmore Co.
[Diarrhena obovata see D. americana]
[Dichanthelium acuminatum see Panicum lanuginosum var. fasciculatum]
[Dichanthelium boreale see Panicum boreale]
[Dichanthelium depauperatum see Panicum depauperatum]
[Dichanthelium dichotomum see Panicum dichotomum]
[Dichanthelium lanuginosum see Panicum lanuginosum]
[Dichanthelium latifolium see Panicum latifolium]
[Dichanthelium leibergii see Panicum leibergii]
[Dichanthelium leucothrix see Panicum leucothrix]
[Dichanthelium linearifolium see Panicum linearifolium]
[Dichanthelium meridionale see Panicum leucothrix var. meridionale]
[Dichanthelium oligosanthes see Panicum oligosanthes]
[Dichanthelium ovale see Panicum commonsianum]
[Dichanthelium sabulorum see Panicum columbianum]
[Dichanthelium villosissimum see Panicum villosissimum]
[Dichanthelium wilcoxianum see Panicum wilcoxianum]
[Dichanthelium xanthophysum see Panicum xanthophysum]
[Digitaria cognata see Leptoloma cognatum]
Digitaria ischaemum -- introduced (Eurasia)
Digitaria sanguinalis -- introduced (Europe)
[Diplachne fascicularis see Leptochloa fascicularis]
Distichlis spicata var. stricta
[Distichlis stricta see D. spicata]
Echinochloa crusgalli -- introduced (Europe)

var. crusgalli
var. frumentacea

Echinochloa muricata

var. microstachya
var. muricata

Echinochloa walteri
Eleusine indica
-- introduced (Eurasia); occasional weed near cultivated fields
[Elyhordeum x macounii see Elymus x macounii]
Elymus canadensis
[Elymus canadensis var. wiegandii see E. wiegandii]
Elymus diversiglumis
Elymus hystrix
[Elymus interruptus see E. diversiglumis]
Elymus junceus -- introduced (Asia); known only from Dakota Co.
Elymus racemosus -- known only from Houston Co.
Elymus trachycaulus
Elymus villosus
Elymus virginicus
Elymus wiegandii
Elymus x macounii
Elytrigia repens
-- state DOA noxious weed
Elytrigia smithii
Eragrostis cilianensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Eragrostis frankii
Eragrostis hypnoides
Eragrostis minor
-- introduced (Europe)
Eragrostis pectinacea
Eragrostis pilosa
var. perplexa -- introduced (tropical regions)
Eragrostis spectabilis
Eragrostis trichodes
-- introduced (central and southern U.S.)
Eriochloa villosa -- introduced (Asia); state DOA noxious weed
[Festuca arundinacea see F. elatior]
Festuca brachyphylla var. rydbergii
Festuca elatior -- native to Europe
[Festuca longifolia see F. trachyphylla]
[Festuca obtusa see F. subverticillata]
Festuca ovina -- introduced (Europe)
[Festuca ovina var. saximontana see F. brachyphylla]
Festuca paradoxa -- reported for Minn. but no specimens at the Museum
Festuca pratensis
-- introduced (Europe)
Festuca rubra

[Festuca saximontana see F. brachyphylla]
Festuca subverticillata
Festuca trachyphylla
-- introduced (Europe); known only from Dakota Co.
Glyceria borealis
Glyceria canadensis
Glyceria grandis
Glyceria striata

var. striata
var. stricta

Helictotrichon hookeri -- state Special Concern list
[Hesperostipa comata see Stipa comata]
[Hesperostipa spartea see Stipa spartea]
Hierochloe odorata
Hordeum jubatum
Hordeum pusillum

[Koeleria macrantha see K. pyramidata]
Koeleria pyramidata
Leersia lenticularis
-- state Special Concern list
Leersia oryzoides var. oryzoides
Leersia virginica
Leptochloa fascicularis
var. acuminata
Leptoloma cognatum
Leymus cinereus
-- reported for Minn. but no specimens at the Museum
[Leymus racemosus see Elymus racemosus]
[Lolium arundinaceum see Festuca elatior]
[Lolium pratense see Festuca pratense]
Lolium perenne -- introduced (Europe)

var. aristatum
var. perenne

Lolium temulentum -- introduced (Mediterranean region); known only from the Mankato area
Melica nitens -- state Threatened list
Milium effusum
Miscanthus sacchariflorus
-- introduced (eastern Asia)
Muhlenbergia asperifolia
Muhlenbergia cuspidata
Muhlenbergia frondosa
-- state DOA noxious weed
Muhlenbergia glomerata
Muhlenbergia mexicana
Muhlenbergia racemosa
Muhlenbergia richardsonis
Muhlenbergia schreberi
Muhlenbergia sylvatica
Muhlenbergia uniflora
-- state Special Concern list
[Nassella viridula see Stipa viridula]
Oryzopsis asperifolia
Oryzopsis hymenoides
-- state Endangered list
Oryzopsis pungens
Oryzopsis racemosa
Panicum boreale
Panicum capillare
Panicum columbianum
Panicum commonsianum
var. euchlamydeum
Panicum depauperatum
Panicum dichotomiflorum
-- state DOA noxious weed
Panicum dichotomum -- known only from Hennepin Co.
Panicum lanuginosum

var. fasiculatum
var. implicatum
var. lindheimeri
[var. praecocius see P. villossisimum]
var. tennesseense

Panicum latifolium
Panicum leibergii
Panicum leucothrix
Panicum linearifolium

[Panicum meridionale see P. leucothrix]
Panicum miliaceum -- introduced (Eurasia); state DOA noxious weed
Panicum oligosanthes
Panicum perlongum
Panicum philadelphicum
Panicum villosissimum
Panicum virgatum
Panicum wilcoxianum
Panicum xanthophysum

[Pascopyrum smithii see Elytrigia smithii]
[Paspalum ciliatifolium see P. setaceum]
Paspalum setaceum var. ciliatifolium
[Pennisetum glaucum see Setaria glauca]
Phalaris arundinacea -- disagreement as to whether this is native or alien
Phalaris canariensis -- introduced (Europe)
Phleum pratense -- introduced (Europe)
Phragmites australis
[Piptatherum pungens see Oryzopsis pungens]
[Piptatherum racemosum see Oryzopsis racemosus]
Poa alsodes
Poa annua
-- introduced (Eurasia)
Poa arida
Poa bulbosa
-- introduced (Europe)
Poa chaixii -- introduced (northern Europe); known only from the Duluth area
Poa compressa -- introduced (Europe)
Poa glauca
Poa interior
Poa languida
-- possibly a synonym of P. saltuensis
Poa nemoralis -- introduced (Europe); known only from St. Louis Co.
[Poa nemoralis ssp. interior see P. interior]
Poa paludigena -- state Threatened list
Poa palustris
Poa pratensis
-- both native and introduced forms exist
Poa saltuensis
[Poa scopulorum see P. glauca]
Poa sylvestris
Poa trivialis -- introduced (Europe)
Poa wolfii -- state Special Concern list
Poa x tormentuosa -- known only from Cook Co.
Polypogon monspeliensis -- introduced (Europe); known only from Polk Co.
[Psathyrostachys juncea see Elymus junceus]
Puccinellia distans -- introduced (Europe)
Puccinellia nuttalliana
Puccinellia pallida
-- state Special Concern list
Schedonnardus paniculatus
Schizachne purpurascens

var. pubescens
var. purpurascens

Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium
Scolochloa festucacea
Setaria faberi
-- introduced (eastern Asia); state DOA noxious weed
Setaria glauca -- introduced (Europe)
Setaria italica -- introduced (Europe)
[Setaria lutescens see S. glauca]
Setaria verticillata var. verticillata -- introduced (Eurasia)
Setaria viridis -- cosmopolitan weed
Sorghastrum nutans
Spartina gracilis
Spartina pectinata

[Sphenopholis intermedia see S. obtusata var. major]
Sphenopholis obtusata

var. major
var. obtusata

Sporobolus asper var. asper
[Sporobolus compositus see S. asper]
Sporobolus cryptandrus

var. cryptandrus
var. fuscicolor

Sporobolus heterolepis
Sporobolus neglectus
Sporobolus vaginiflorus
Stipa comata
Stipa spartea
Stipa viridula

[Torreyochloa pallida see Puccinellia pallida]
Triplasis purpurea -- state Special Concern list
Trisetum spicatum
Vulpia octoflora var. glauca

[Zizania aquatica see Z. palustris]
Zizania palustris

var. interior
var. palustris

Common cultivated grasses of Minnesota:

Avena sativa -- oats
Hordeum vulgare -- barley
Poa pratense -- Kentucky bluegrass
Secale cereale -- rye
Sorghum sudanense -- sorghum
Triticum aestivum -- wheat
Zea mays -- corn
Zizania palustris -- wild-rice

Return to Guide to the Common Grasses of Minnesota

Anita F. Cholewa, Ph.D., J.F. Bell Museum of Natural History
Copyright 2002 / All rights reserved / No portion of this guide may be copied without written permission.